Pharaoh Quail Breed

General Information

It is also known as Coturnix quail. They don’t require too much space for living. It has an average weight of 141-170g. The egg production will start when quail is 7 weeks old.


Starter feed: For starter quails i.e at the age of 1-3 weeks it requires more protein level in feed. Broiler chick requires 23% protein, 1% calcium, 0.5% methionine and 0.5% phosphorus in their feed and layer chick requires 24% protein, 0.85% calcium, 0.5% methionine and 0.6% phosphorus in their feed. Starter chick (1-3 weeks old) requires 3.8-9.8 gram feed per day per quail, grower chick (4-6 weeks old) requires 14-18 gram feed per day per quail and layer chick (7 weeks old) requires 20 gram feed per day per quail.

Regular feed: Nutritious food plays an important role in health, growth and overall production of quails. Mainly 20-30g of daily feed is consumed by an adult quail. Generally 27% of protein is required for baby quail and 22-24% of protein is required for adult quail.  

Feed components:
It is very easy to feed the quail. To feed the quail, it requires mixture of cake, sweet corn, pasta, rice, lettuce etc.  The other feed ingredients are maize, sorghum, groundnut cake, deoiled rice bran, sunflower cake, fishmeal, mineral mixture, shell grit, soya meal etc.

Along with healthy and nutritious feed, make sure to provide them clean and fresh water every time.

Care of the breed

Care and shelter: The first step is to prepare suitable place for quail’s living. The place must be minimum space of 1 square foot. The average temperature should be 15-20oC and humidity should be 40-70%. The room must be well ventilated, dust free and insulated.  There are two ways of housing management:
•    Deep Litter system:  Quails require relatively small floor space. In this system, 4-6 birds can be reared per square feet.  After 2 weeks they can be reared in cages.
•    Cage System:  The size of cages should be 3 ft × 2.5 ft × 1.5 ft, for first two weeks. It can accommodate about 100 quails.  From 3-6 weeks age, cages of size 4ft × 2.5ft × 1.5ft will accommodate 50 quails. Each unit should have 6 feet length and 1 feet width, which should be divided into 6 sub-units.  Cage box should be fixed with wooden plates. Proper ventilation is very necessary in the farm. Long narrow feed troughs should be provided in front of cages.
Proper care should be taken of chicks in first 3 months when they are critical. The weight of 1 day old chick is 7-8g. Give approximately 27% of protein in first 3 weeks and then after 3 weeks, the protein content must be 24% and 2800kilo calorie/kg of molybdenum energy is required.

Care of egg laying quails: Mainly female quails lay eggs between 7-22 weeks of age. Mainly quail lay eggs in evening time of the day. 16 hours light/day must be required to egg laying quails.

Care of quail chicks
: Mainly one day old chick has approximately 8-10gm of weight. More temperature is required for the care of baby chicks. For the first week the temperature of brooder must be 95oF and it must be dropped by 5oF for every following week. Proper feed at proper must be given to chicks and clean water must be available every time in the brooder.

Diseases and Treatment

•    Coccidiosis: It is a parasitic disease which is caused by Coccidian protozoa. It can affect more to younger animals. It damages the intestinal wall of quail and then sudden death.
Treatment: An anticoccidial agent for e.g. Amprolin or Baycox is used to control the disease.

•    Ulcerative enteritis:
It is also known as quail disease. It is a bacterial disease. It mainly occurs from dirty conditions and affects the folk rapidly. The symptoms are sleepiness, less food, weight loss and then death.
Treatment: Dose of Duramycin is given immediately. 1 tablespoon per gallon of water is recommended.

•    Coryza:
It is a bacterial infection which mainly spreads from quail to chicken. The signs are swelling, labored breathing, smelly discharge from eyes and nostrils and sticky eyelids.
Treatment: Dose of Sulfadimethoxine is given to cure the disease. 1 tablespoon per gallon of water is recommended.

•    Quail bronchitis:
It is mainly transmitted through birds in quails. The symptoms are breathing problem and coughing.
Treatment: Dose of Tylan is given @1 tablespoon per gallon of water.

•    Equine Encephalitis:
This disease is mainly spread through mosquitoes. The symptoms are neck tremors, liver issues, paralysis and ticks.
Treatment: Use a mosquito repellant in the quail living place.

•    MG (Mycoplasma Gallisepticum):
It is also known as chronic respiratory disease (CRD) which is a bacterial infection caused in the respiratory tract.
Treatment: Dose of Duramycin is given @1 tablespoon per gallon of water.

•    Bumblefoot:
This disease is mainly caused due to presence of scab on the foot.
Treatment: The foot is soaked in Epsom salts then the infected portion is flushed with dilute Bitadine or Chlorhexidine and then rinses it with sterile water.