General Information

Mushroom is a rich source of protein, vitamins, folic acid also good source of iron. It is highly suitable for heart and diabetes patients. Its cultivation is practiced worldwide for more than 200years. In India, in recent years its commercial cultivation has started. It is cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and J & K. Mushroom farming can be done by any one i.e. house wife, retired person etc. as space requirement is low. Cultivation of Dhingri mushroom is very simple and can be done with less investment that’s why its cultivation is popular and increasing day by day in Rajasthan.   


Mushroom cultivation can be done inside in well ventilated room, shed, basement, garage etc. Paddy straw mushroom can be grown outside in shady places.

Popular Varieties With Their Yield

Three kinds of mushroom are grown in India.
Button Mushroom

Popular mushroom grown all over world. Can be grown throughout year. White button mushroom is highly proteinaceous. It is consumed as fresh or canned. It also has medicinal property. Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are major mushroom growing states.
November to March month is optimum period for growing of button mushroom in UP. For good growth, it requires temperature around 22-25oC, and at reproductive stage it requires temperature around 14-18oC.
Straw Mushroom

Straw Mushroom is the third popular mushroom variety grown all over world. They are grown on cotton waste mixed with small amount of straw. These are small mushroom having small cone shape cap. cap is dark brown at top. Its three species are cultivated V. diplasia, V. volvacea and V. esculenta in India. Out of these three species Volvariella volvacea is cultivated in Uttar Pradesh.
It is also known as “Chinese” or “Paddy” mushroom. These are largely grown in tropical and subtropical regions. It can grow at temperature of 35oC. April to September is optimum period for cultivation of straw mushroom.

Oyster Mushroom or Dhingri mushroom
Common and edible mushroom. It has tender flesh, velvety texture with mild flavor. It is a rich source of protein, fiber and vitamin B1 to B12. All the varieties or species of oyster mushroom are edible except P. olearius and P. nidiformis which are poisonous. Orissa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and most of the North-Eastern hill states are major states which are producing mushroom.
October to March is optimum period for growing of oyster mushroom. It survives well in moderate temperature range of 20-30oC with 80-85% relative humidity.


Spawn Preparation
Substrate preparation
Spawning of substrate
Crop Management
Spawn Preparation

Spawn/Mushroom seeds preparation

These are available in markets. One can prepared or produce it on farm. Freshly prepared grain spawn is best for use.

Substrate preparation

Mushroom can be cultivated on a wide range of cellulosic farm waste or other materials like waste paper, cotton waste, cereals straws. Paddy straw or wheat straw is most commonly used material for substrate preparation.

Oyster growing in Polythene bag

Add Carbendazim@7 gm along with Formaline@125 ml in 100 Ltr water and prepare a mixture.
Add 20 kg of wheat straw in above prepared mixture and keep it for 18 hours.
After 18 hours, remove wheat straw and place it on firm or netted surface and remove extra water from it.
Add 2% spawn in wheat straw and fill this mixture in polythene bag of 15 x 12 inch.
Spawned straw is filled about 2/3rd of the capacity of the bag and then tied mouth of polythene bag.
Polythene bag is perforated with 2 mm diam. holes, about 4 cm apart, all over the surface for air circulation purpose.
Then place bags in shelves in the growing room having Relative Humidity of 80-85% and room temperature of 24-26°C.
Keep these bags in safe places and maintain moisture by sprinkling water on it.
White cottony mycelium is developed on straw. Wheat straw changes its color to brown and become sound and compact.
At this stage cut and remove polythene covering.
In polythene, straw become compacted and become cylinder shape.
Arrange these cylinder shape straws on shelves and maintained moisture by spreading water on it.

Plant protection

  • Disease and their control:

Fungal diseases:

Brown spots, fungus or Verticillium disease:
Sometimes light brown color spots are seen on the umbrella of mushroom which will ultimately slowly develops into irregular shape. But under microscope when this diseases is seen then these spots are seen very thin which is white to gray color and one celled fungus is seen. If the disease spreads out, than mushroom becomes leathery and dried without any smell. 

Before disease spreading its prevention is necessary. Clean rooms, ventilated, all instruments and casing must be dust-free. Don’t rise the temperature and spraying of Indofil M-45@0.25-0.5% is done three times, first at the time of casing, second at the time of pin tie and third is done after harvesting of 2 crops.

White fungus Mycogone disease: By this disease mainly mushroom becomes brown and gives bad odor. The symptoms are soft mushrooms, lower part becomes thick and umbrella becomes short in size.

Treatment: Make Casing soil bacterial free by pasteurizing or chemical fertilizers. Spraying of Indofil M-45 is done.

Green fungus: This disease is mainly in compost and casing soil. This bacterium produces the poisonous element in casing soil. They kill the thin elements of mushroom and stipe becomes deep brown color from red brown color. This fungus is deep green in color and it makes the wound on umbrella of mushroom.

Treatment: Prevention can be done by making compost or casing bacterial free with Dithiocarbomate or Benzimedazole.

Truffle: This disease is spread through Dileomysis microporus. The symptoms are irregular shape light yellow color mushroom develops. The mushroom has 1.0 mm to 3.5 mm height.

Treatment: To get rid of truffle, rooms must be well ventilated and is protected from moisture. It stops the development of spawn. To get rid of this, at the time of spawn development the temperature must be 18oC and the crop temperature should not be more than 17oC.

White Plaster mould: Scopulariopsis fimicola are the fungus which causes this disease. It is white color fungus which appears as white spot. The spots changes from white color to light pink color. 

If mould is occurred then spraying with Formalin@2% is done. At the time of spawning spraying of Carbendazim 10 PFM is done in compost.

Bacterial disease:

Bacterial blotch:
The symptoms are brown color blotches are seen on the surface of the cap. In initial they are light in color which becomes darker which becomes dark brown in color.

Treatment: Application of Sodium hypochloride 150 ppm is done to get rid of this disease.

  • Pest and their control:

Nematodes: The nematodes eat the spawn.

Treatment: It can be controlled through pasteurization. At the time of compost for the prevention Furadan @120 gm (per 300 gm) should be added.


18-20 days after spawning, first mushroom is appeared. With interval of week, two to three flushes will appears.
Carry out harvesting of oyster mushroom, when cap of mushroom starts to fold.
For harvesting use sharp knife and it can be harvested by twisting off it with fingers.
It is consumed freshly or can be dried in sun or with mechanical dryer. 
Within 45-60 days period, from one ton of dry wheat straw more than 500 kg of fresh mushroom can be obtained.