General Information

Bottle gourd is also known as “Calabash” or “lauki” and it belongs to family “Cucurbitaceae”. It is an annual climbing vine which has vigorous growth. The plant bears white color flowers which bears fleshy and bottle shaped fruits. The fruit is used for cooking purpose. There are also health benefits of bottle gourd. It helps in better digestion, reduces sugar level and constipation, cures insomnia and urinary infections and is good remedy for treating insomnia.


It is grown in variety of soils. It gives best result when grown in sandy loam to loamy soil.

Popular Varieties With Their Yield

Bottle Gourd Long Varieties

Punjab Long (1997): describes the plants as vigorous and profusely branched, with cylindrical light green and gleaming fruits. It is appropriate for packaging as well as long-distance marketing. The average yield per acre is 180 q/acre.

Punjab Komal (1988): is a variety that matures early. The first fruit matures and is marketable in about 70 days after sowing. It produces 10-12 oblong, medium-sized, light green, pubescent fruits per vine. Fruits are tender and borne on medium, long, thin pedicel from the fourth or fifth node. It is resistant to the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The average yield per acre is around 200 q/acre.

Punjab Barkat (2014): Describes the vines as vigorously growing and profusely branched. The stem is adolescent. The fruits are long, cylindrical, gleaming, tender, and light green in colour. It is moderately resistant to mosaic disease. It produces 226 q/acre on average.

Punjab Bahar (2017): has medium-length pubescent vines. The fruits are nearly round, medium in size, light green, gleaming, and pubescent. Its vines produce 9 to 10 fruits on average. It has an average yield of 222 q/acre.

Bottle Gourd Round Varieties

The main varieties of round bottle gourd are Pusa Summer Prolific Round, Pusa Manjri (Sankar variety), and Punjab Round.


Arka Bahar: Pure line selection from IIHR-20A. Fruits medium long, straight without crookneck. Light green shining fruit skin when tender (1kg). Tolerant to blossom end rot. Yield 160-180q/ acre.


Land Preparation

For bottle gourd farming, well prepared land is used. To bring the soil to fine tilth, ploughing followed by harrowing is done.


Time of sowing:
The optimum time for sowing is February-March, June-July and November-December month.

Use row spacing of 2.0-2.5m and plant spacing of 45-60cm.

Sowing depth:
1-2cm deep seeds are sown.


Seed rate:
Seed rate of 2kg is sufficient for one acre land.

Seed treatment:
Seed is treated with Bavistin@0.2% @3gm/kg to protect the seeds from soil borne fungus.


Apply FYM (Farm Yard Manure)@20-25tonnes/acre. Application of fertilizer dose of nitrogen@28kg/acre in the form of urea@60kg/acre should be done. First dose of nitrogen@14kg/acre (urea@30kg/acre) is given at the time of sowing and second dose of nitrogen@14kg/acre (urea@30kg/acre) is given at the time of first picking.


Crop requires immediate irrigation. After sowing, immediate irrigation is given. In summer season 6-7 irrigations are required and in rainy season if needed then irrigation is given. In total, 9 irrigations are required.

Weed Control

To control the weeds, 2-3 hoeings are required at the initial stages of plant growth. Weeding operations are carried out at the time of fertilizer application. Earthing up is also an effective way which should be carried out in rainy season. 

Plant protection

Bottle Gourd Fruit Fly.jpg
  • Pest and their control:

Fruit fly: They feed themselves on internal tissues of fruits which cause premature fruit dropping and rotting and yellowing of fruits.
Treatment: Spray with Carbaryl@10% @ 600-700gm in 150ltr water per acre.


Pumpkin beetles: The beetles destroy the roots by feeding on themselves.
Treatment: Spray with Carbaryl@10% @ 600-700gm in 150ltr water per acre.

epilancha beetle.jpg

Epilachna beetle: The grubs destroy the plant parts by feeding on them.
Treatment: Spray with Carbaryl@10% @ 600-700gm in 150ltr water per acre.

downy mildew.png
  • Disease and their control:

Downy mildew: Chlorotic spots are the symptoms of this disease.
Treatment: Spray with Mancozeb@400gm in 150ltr water per acre.

powdery mildew.jpg

Powdery mildew: Small, white color spots are seen on leaves and stems are the symptoms of this disease.
Treatment: Spraying of M-45 or Z-78@400-500gm is used to get rid of this disease.

Bottle Gourd Mosaic.jpg

Mosaic: The disease causes stunted growth and yield gets reduced.
Treatment: Spray of Dimethoate@200-250ml in 150ltr water is done to get rid of mosaic.


Depending upon variety and season, crop is ready for harvesting in 60-70days. Depending upon market requirement, medium and tender fruits are harvested. Mature fruits are mostly stored for seed production purpose. Cut the fruits from vines with help of sharp knife. In peak season, picking should be done in every 3-4 days.


Keep isolation distance of 800m from other varieties of sponge gourd. Remove diseased plants from the field. For seed production, the fruits are harvested when they get physiologically mature. Three field inspections are required for the production of true to type seed. After harvesting, fruits are dried and then seeds are extracted.