Soybean Farming

General Information

Soybean called as golden beans is belongs to legume family. It is native of East Asia. It is a rich source of Protein also excellent source of fibre. Oil extracted from soybean contain small amount of saturated fat. In Punjab, it plays an important role in crop diversification.      

Climate

  • Season

    Temperature

    18-38°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    30-60cm
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    25-38°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    18-25°C
  • Season

    Temperature

    18-38°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    30-60cm
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    25-38°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    18-25°C
  • Season

    Temperature

    18-38°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    30-60cm
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    25-38°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    18-25°C
  • Season

    Temperature

    18-38°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    30-60cm
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    25-38°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    18-25°C

Soil

It gives good result, when grown on well drained, fertile loamy soils. pH of 6 to 7.5 is favourable for optimum yield of soybean. Water logged, saline/alkaline soils are not suitable for its cultivation. Low temperature affect crop severely.

Popular Varieties With Their Yield

SL 525: Ready to harvest in 144 days. Seeds are uniform and bold. It gives resistance to yellow mosaic virus and give tolerance to stem blight and root knot nematodes. Gives average yield of 6 qtl/acre.

SL 744: Ready to harvest in 139 days. Grains are of light yellow color. It is resistant to yellow mosaic virus. Gives average yield of 7.3 qtl/acre.

SL 958: Ready to harvest in 142 days. Gives average yield of 7.3 qtl/acre. 

Other states variety

Alankar, Ankur, Bragg, Lee, PK 262, PK 308, PK 327, PK 416, PK 472, PK 564, Pant Soybean 1024, Pant Soybean 1042, Pusa 16, Pusa 20, Pusa 22, Pusa 24, Pusa 37, Shilajeet, VL soya 2, VL soya 47

Land Preparation

Prepared field by giving two to three ploughings followed by planking. 

Sowing

Time of sowing
First fortnight of June is best time for sowing Soybean.

Spacing
While sowing use row to row spacing of 45 cm and plant to plant spacing of 4-7 cm.

Sowing Depth
Sow seeds at depth of 2.5-5 cm.

Method of sowing
Sow seeds with help of seed drill.

Seed

Seed Rate
Use seed rate of 25-30 kg for sowing in one acre land.

Seed Treatment
To protect seeds from soil borne diseases, treat seeds with Thiram or Captan@3 gm per kg of seeds.

Fertilizer

Fertilizer Requirements (kg/acre)

UREA SSP MURIATE OF POTASH
28 200 Apply if deficiency observed

 

Nutrient Requirements (kg/acre)

NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS POTASH
12.5 32 Apply if deficiency observed

 

Apply FYM or well decomposed cowdung@4 ton/acre. Also apply Nitrogen@12.5 kg and Phosphorus@32 kg in form of Urea@28kg and SSP@200 kg per acre at time of sowing.

To obtain good growth and optimum yield, take spray of Urea@3 kg/150 ltr of water on 60th and 75th day after sowing.

 

Weed Control

To keep field weed free, two hoeing are required, give first hoeing 20 days after sowing and second hoeing 40 days after sowing.

To control weed chemically, after sowing, within two days, take spray of Pendimethalin@800 ml/acre in 100-200 ltrs of water.

Irrigation

Overall crop required three to four irrigation. Irrigation at time of pod filling stage is necessary. Water stress at this period will affect yield drastically. Apply irrigation depending upon rainfall conditions. No irrigation required in good rainfall conditions.

Plant protection

White Fly
  • Pest and their control:

White Fly: For white fly control, take spray of Thiamethoxam@40 gm or Triazophos@300 ml/acre. If necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray.

Tobacco Caterpillar

Tobacco caterpillar: If infestation is observed, take spray of Acephate 57SP@800 gm/acre or Chlorpyriphos 20EC@ 1.5 ltr/acre. If necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray.

Hairy Caterpillar

Hairy Caterpillar: To control hairy caterpillar pick caterpillar manually and destroyed by crushing or putting in kerosene water when infestation is low. In case of high infestation, take spray of Quinalphos@300 ml or Dichlorvos@200 ml/acre.

Blister beetle

Blister beetle: They cause damage at flowering stage. They feed on flowers, buds thus prevent grain formation.
If infestation is observed, take spray of Indoxacarb 14.5SC@200 ml or Acephate 75SC@800 gm/acre. Carry out spraying in evening hours and if necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray.        

Yellow Mosaic Virus
  • Disease and their control:

Yellow mosaic virus: It is spread due to white fly. Irregular yellow, green patches are observed on leaves. Pods not developed on infected plants.
Grow yellow mosaic virus resistant varieties. For white fly control, take spray of Thiamethoxam@40 gm, Triazophos@ 400 ml/acre. If necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray. 
 

Harvesting

Pods become dry and leaves changes their color to yellow and fall of, it is sign of crop is ready for harvesting. Harvest the crop with sickle or by hand. After harvesting, carry out threshing operation. 

Post-Harvest

After drying, carry out proper cleaning of seeds. Remove small size seeds, damaged seeds and crop stalks.
 

References

1.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana

2.Department of Agriculture

3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi

4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research

5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare