Shaftal Crop Cultivation

General Information

Shaftal are also known as bhukal. These are very highly nutritious leguminous fodder. It is liked by all the animals. It is a late season growing crop. It is mainly used to mix with oats and ryegrass to elevate productivity.

Climate

  • Season

    Temperature

    12°C - 20°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    500 mm
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    13°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    20°C - 25°C
  • Season

    Temperature

    12°C - 20°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    500 mm
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    13°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    20°C - 25°C
  • Season

    Temperature

    12°C - 20°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    500 mm
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    13°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    20°C - 25°C
  • Season

    Temperature

    12°C - 20°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    500 mm
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    13°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    20°C - 25°C

Soil

Shaftal is suited to most soil types from sandy loams through to heavy clay soils.

Popular Varieties With Their Yield

Shaftal 48, SH 69, SH 48.

Shaftal-69: Its leaves are long stalk and round in shape. Flowers are pink in color. This variety is resistant to stem-rot disease. The seeds are green and turn yellow when developed fully.

Land Preparation

Plough the land for one time with disc harrow as well as two times with cultivator to prepare seed bed.

Sowing

Time of sowing
Last week of September to first week of October is optimum time for sowing seeds.

Spacing
Seeds are sown by broadcasting method.

Sowing Depth
Seeds are sown in standing water.

Method of sowing
Seeds are sown by broadcasting method.

Seed

Seed rate: Use seed rate of 4-5 kg for sowing one acre land. Also mix mustard seeds@500 gm or Oat seeds@12 kg at time shaftal sowing to obtain high yield.

Fertilizer

Fertilizers Requirement (kg/acre)

Urea SSP MOP
11 125 -

 

Nutrients Value (kg/acre)

Nitrogen Phosphorus Potash
5 20 -

 

At time of sowing apply 5 kg of nitrogen (in form of Urea@11 kg) and 20 Kg phosphorus (in form of SSP@ 125 kg) per acre.

Irrigation

Irrigation is necessary for shaftal crop. First irrigation after sowing in 3-6 days in light soil and 6-8 days in heavy soil. Depending upon climatic condition apply remaining irrigation at interval of 9-10 days in case of summer and 10-15 days in case of winter season.

Plant protection

Hairy caterpillar

Insect Pest and their control

Hairy caterpillar: They destroy the crop leaves, steam. Their attack cause economic loss of the crop.

Control: It can be controlled by spraying of Flubendiamide@20ml or Quinalphos@400ml per acre in 150 ltr of water.

Gram caterpillar

Gram caterpillar: They destroy the crop severely.

Control: To control, take spray of 50 ml Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SL or 60 ml Tracer. Repeat these sprays after 10 days if required.

Downy Mildew
  • Disease and their control

Downy mildew: This disease emerges in the month of January. They appear on the top of the plant which looks like grey cottony. Stems get retarded, leaves get twisted.

Treatment: If infestation is observed take spray of Zineb 75WP @400gm/acre. Take two to three sprays at interval of 10 days.

Rust

Rust: In this green part of the plant appear to have small red pustules. Leaves firstly appear to be rusted and later fall. The seed which get infected get light in weight.

Control: If infestation is observed take spray of Zineb 75WP@400gm or M-45@400gm per acre in 150 ltr of water.
 

Harvesting

Crop is ready for harvesting in 55-60 days for first cutting. Remaining cutting are taken at interval of 30 days.

References

1.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana

2.Department of Agriculture

3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi

4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research

5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare