Berseem Crop Farming

General Information

Berseem is a fast growing, high quality forage that is mainly cut and fed as green chopped forage. Flowers are yellowish-white in color. Berseem can be sown alone or in combination with other species. It is mixed with grass (ryegrass) or with a winter cereal crop such as oats to make high quality silage.

Climate

  • Season

    Temperature

    15°C - 27°C
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    25-27°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    15-20°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    550-750 mm
  • Season

    Temperature

    15°C - 27°C
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    25-27°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    15-20°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    550-750 mm
  • Season

    Temperature

    15°C - 27°C
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    25-27°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    15-20°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    550-750 mm
  • Season

    Temperature

    15°C - 27°C
  • Season

    Sowing Temperature

    25-27°C
  • Season

    Harvesting Temperature

    15-20°C
  • Season

    Rainfall

    550-750 mm

Soil

This crop gives best result when grown in Medium to heavy soil. It can be grown on sandy loam soil but it requires frequent irrigations. It improves physical, chemical and biological properties of soil and thus improves its fertility status.

Popular Varieties With Their Yield

BL 1: It is quick growing variety and medium duration variety. It produces more tillers. Gives green fodder upto last week of May. It gives about 380 quintals of green fodder per acre.

BL 10: It is a long duration variety. Supply green fodder upto Mid June. Tolerant to stem rot disease. It gives 410 qtl of green fodder per acre.

BL 42:
It is quick growing variety. Produces more tillers. It is tolerant to stem rot disease. It produces green fodder upto first week of June. It gives 440 qtl/acre of green fodder.

Other state varieties:

Mescavi: Developed by CCS, Hisar. Suitable for cultivation in entire growing areas.

Wardan: Developed by IGFRI, Jhansi. Suitable for cultivation in entire growing areas.

BL 22: Developed by PAU, Ludhiana. Suitable for hill areas of north India and sub-temperate region.

HFB 600: Developed by CCS, Hisar. Suitable for cultivation in entire growing areas.

BL 180:
  Developed by PAU, Ludhiana. Suitable for growing areas of north India.

Land Preparation

For sowing, use leveled land so that water logging conditions will not appeared during growth period. Carry out planking operation after each ploughing

Sowing

Time of sowing
Last week of September to first week of October is best time of sowing.

Spacing
Sowing broadcasting method is used.

Sowing Depth

Depending upon weather conditions, Broadcast seeds in standing water (water depth 4-5 cm). Complete sowing in evening hours.  

Method of sowing
Berseem is sown by broadcasting method.

Seed

Seed Rate
Use seed free from weeds. Before sowing put seeds in water and remove seeds which floats on water. Use seed rate of 8 to 10 kg seeds.
For getting good yield, mix 750 kg of mustard seed along with berseem seeds.

Seed Treatment

Before sowing, treat seeds with Rhizobium culture. Mixed one packet of Rhizobium culture in 10% gur solution and then rub this mixture on seeds. Dry them in shade.

Fertilizer

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)

UREA SSP MURIATE OF POTASH ZINC
22 185 # #

 

Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)

NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS POTASH
10 30 #

 

Apply N:P in ratio of 10:30 kg in form of Urea@22 kg and Superphosphate@185 kg/acre at sowing time.

 

Weed Control

Bueen is serious weeds of Berseem crop. To control this weed before sowing, spray Fluchloralin @ 400 ml/200 Litres of water per acre on seed bed.

Irrigation

Apply first irrigation, within 3 to 5 days in light soil and 6-8 days in heavy soils. Remaining irrigation should be applied at 8-10 days interval in summer and 10-15 days during winter.

Plant protection

Grasshopper
  • Pest and their control:

Grass hopper: It damage crop by eating leaves. It occurred mostly in May-June month. If infestation is observed, spray crop with Malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml in 80-100 Ltr of water per acre. After spraying do not feed cattle for seven days.


Gram Caterpillar

Gram Caterpillar: Avoid raising of crop nearby tomato, gram, late sown wheat. If infestation is observed spray with Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SL @ 50 ml or Spinosad 48 SC @ 60 ml per acre in 80-100 Ltr water with help of knapsack sprayer.

Stem Rot
  • Disease and their control:

Stem Rot: It is seed borne disease. It causes rotting of stem near soil surface. White fungus growth is observed on nearby soil.

Remove and destroyed affected plants. Take spray of Carbendazim @ 400 gm in 200 Ltrs of water per acre.

Harvesting

Crop is ready to harvest 50 days after sowing. After then take cutting with 40 days interval in winter and 30 days interval in spring. Berseem can be mixed with 20% ground maize to provide high quality silage

References

1.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana

2.Department of Agriculture

3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi

4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research

5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare